Military construction machines used by military engineers such as bulldozers, excavators, wheel loaders, trucks, motor graders, backhoes, soil compactors, wheel tractor scrapers or telescopic handlers
military engineering machines used in military engineering by mechanical engineers for earthmoving and preparing construction zones
large military machinery used in large-scale construction projects such as airports, roads or different military structures
military construction equipment that is used in conjunction with military engineering vehicles by the United States Army Corps of Engineers
One of the parts that comes to mind when we talk about machine elements is clutches. We have devoted this publication to the topics of clutches, the places where clutches are used and the types of clutches.
What is the grip ? : Clutches are machine elements that octoberate the transmission of force and movement by connecting shafts on the same axis in a tight, movable, flexible or solvable way to each other, connecting the shafts.
Places where clutches are used
Stopping the other shaft at any time without stopping the motor shaft, rotating it by means of clutch couplings. the most commonly used areas of clutches are the stopping and gripping of the rear wheel movements by means of the clutch in vehicles.
Pedal control of a clutch clutch used in motor vehicles. This clutch is a clutch that is normally connected by spring force. The driver performs the decoding by pressing the pedal. Here, hydraulic cylinders were used to reduce the pedal force
To interrupt the flow of energy until it is rotated by an appropriate combination without stopping the spinner and changing the direction of rotation, or to change the direction of rotation. Such systems are generally called tornistan mechanisms.
Transmit motion to different parts of the system with a single rotating element (for example, a single diesel engine), disconnect it when desired. (For example, ladle cranes with rotating towers that can move)
where clutches are used:
It is important that the clutches work stably. In case of unstable operation, they disrupt the shaft ends. They work efficiently.
the places where the clutch is used are manual gears
The figure above shows the use of the clutch in the manual gear transmission system. Please watch the video below for more detailed explanation.
Couplings can be made available to the extent appropriate for Standard shaft diameters. Although the places where the clutches are used vary, it would not be wrong to say that we can see the clutches wherever mile-to-mile motion transmission is concerned.
Characteristics of clutches
There is no difference in basic principle between decouchable-connectable clutches and brakes. It is intended to bring two different parts to the same speed with clutches, while it is desirable to bring the rotating side to the speed of the non-rotating side in the brakes, that is, to stop. There is a great similarity between many decoupage brakes and clutches
Types of clutches
Classification of clutches can be done as follows:
Types of clutches by structure
we can generally diversify the clutches according to their structure and according to the type of control separately.
1- TIGHT CLUTCHES
They are clutches that do not dissolve when transmitting movement from one shaft to another.
1-a Bracelet grip
Its outer parts are in the form of two conical half-sleeves, which are joined by bringing the shafts end to end. To hold these two halves of the sleeve, bracelets are passed out of the sleeves from both sides so that the grip is tightened. It is widely used because it is easy to install and disassemble. It is preferred in humid places.
clutch ring grip types
1-b Sleeve clutch:
Two shafts with a wedge slot are brought to the end of the end and a sleeve is put on it. Inclined wedges with a nose are fixed by tapping. Protective hair splinters are attached from two sides.
1-c Sleeve Grip:
In this type of clutch, which is made of two bowl-shaped parts, called a sleeve clutch, the shafts are brought to the end and the sleeves are attached. It is tightened with bolts and nuts. To avoid accidents, round hair is passed around it.
1-d Flanged couplings:
plate-shaped flanges with bolt holes around them are attached to the shaft ends in hot form or by hydraulic fitting. For centering dec, two-piece bracelets are placed between the flanges and tightening is performed with bolts and nuts. Gaskets are installed in places where decoupage is important.
types of couplings flanged coupling 3d
1-e Sellers clutch:
In this type of clutch, two conical sleeves are pulled with three long bolts inside a cylinder and the shafts are brought end to end. Since the bolts pass through the sleeves and the cylinder, the coupling parts are prevented from rotating.
Sellers the taper in the clutch is 1: 10 to 1: 20.
1-f Forehead grip:
It is used for gripping hollow shafts by opening threads similar to a screw thread on the forehead parts of the coupling parts. The couplings are clamped by bringing the coupling parts closer together.
types of clutches technical picture of the forehead grip
1-g. Hydraulic arrow clutch:
In this clutch made by hydraulic clamping methods, the outer diameter of the shafts and the outer part of the conical (1) shirt are passed first. Then the sleeve numbered (2) is passed through and the nut (3) is screwed. Then, by means of (4 dec pumps, liquid oil with a viscosity of 3 Engler is pressed between the sleeve and the shirt at 50 °C. When the liquid oil leaves the end of the clutch, oil is sent from pump (5) to compartment (6). The sleeve, which is pushed by the pressure of the sent oil, is tried to be compressed onto the conical surface of the shirt.
types of clutches hydraulic arrow clutch
2- MOVABLE COUPLINGS
2-a. Expansion coupling:
In some cases, the shafts work under the influence of heat. Since it will extend by 1.1 mm at 100 °C at a height of 1 m along the axis of the heated shaft, this is allowed with the expansion coupling type. In this grip, which is made with a finger-shaped indentation and protrusion, the margin of elongation is left.
expansion grip grip types
2-b Oldham clutch
types of coupling machine elements oldham coupling coupling
types of couplings- oldham coupling
It is used when there is a decency between the shafts. this opening is decoupled by placing a clipped disc piece at a right angle to each other between the two grip pieces.
2-c Cardan clutch
It is used in cases where the shafts must move at an angle (for example, at the shaft shaft ends of vehicles).
types of clutches cardan clutch
This angle is about 5°-7°. The cardan clutch consists of two fork hubs and a crosshair in the form of a plus. The fork hubs attached to the shaft ends are connected to each other via the istavroz.
animation of the working system of the cardan clutch
machine elements snowman animation gif
The structure of the cardan clutch seems to be a little more understandable in the animation that appears above.
2-d Articulated clutch
Due to the fact that the cardan clutches move at limited angles, such as 5°-7°, articulated clutches are used when movement at larger angles and at unchanged angles is desired. Rollers, cogs... etc. such elements can be used.
types of clutches articulated clutch
In articulated couplings, the constant speed plane (balls) can work in as much as a/2 when it operates at an angle of two miles (a).
3- FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS
Flexible couplings, which are designed to provide flexibility against various impacts and knocks, mon taj errors in the system, are made of flexible materials (leather, spring, rubber) while the machines are working..) they are used to transmit movements regularly. These:
3-a Periflex clutch
These couplings, which have a wide range of uses in technology, are connected to the flanges with the help of a hoop, bracelets made of rubber with a cloth.
technical picture of the periflex clutch
types of couplings periflex coupling sectional representation. In general, with these clutches, angular movements of 8 mm in length and 5 mm in width around 3-5 ° are met with safety.
Elastic formations meet the moments that can come on them fantastically with civilization. It works well when used together with lamellar or electromagnetic couplings in places with centering difficulties.
3-b Elastic collar grip
Elastic bracelets are placed in the holes of the flanges attached to the ends of the shafts and the two flanges are connected by pulling them together with elements such as bolts, perno. They are suitable for destroying perpendicular and axial forces, knocks and impacts coming to the shafts.
3-c Bibby clutch
Channels were opened around the flanges installed with a wedge at the end of the two shafts, and the grip was improved by installing curved springs with a rectangular section inside these channels. Springs are made of high-quality spring steels. They are used safely in impact work.
types of machine elements coupling elastic bibby
3-d Voith-Mourer coupling
It is formed by the arrangement of springs (3) curled into flanges (1) and (2) seen in the figure. they work conveniently up to 2-3 mm tall playing, angular playing and movements at l°-2°.
3-e Free elastic decoupled grip
In this clutch, which is dec by placing parts such as rubber, rubber numbered (3) that provide elasticity between flanges numbered (1) and (2) seen in the figure, the elastic parts are held by means of protrusions or pins.
4- DETACHABLE CLUTCHES
4-a Lamellar grip
machine elements lamellar couplings
It is the type of grip that is achieved by creating a large number of friction surfaces. A large number of friction surfaces (lamellas) are used to increase the friction force. It works well when used together with electromagnetic couplings in places with centering difficulties.
4-b Hydraulic lamellar clutch
These couplings, which are controlled by pressurized oil, have a wide range of uses. When pressurized oil is supplied to the (a) pipe by means of the four-way valve (4) seen in the figure, it returns to the oil tank in the (b) pipe through the (d) pipe. In this way, the oil in the (bi) cavity is discharged while the pressurized oil is filled into the (ai) cavity of the cylinder. As a result, one of the clutches closes and one opens. If the compressed oil is sent through the (b) pipe, it is the opposite of what was described above. As a result of opening and closing, a gripping event occurs.
4-c Friction clutch
A friction clutch is a type of clutch that allows it to combine with disk-shaped parts with a friction surface attached to the shaft ends, creating a friction force, transmitting movement to the other shaft.
When the disk in the rotating shaft is pressed against the disk in the other shaft, motion transmission is achieved by friction of the surface. For friction materials used for friction clutches, See: Friction materials used in clutches
types of clutches friction clutch
4-d Claw grip
types of grip types of grip types of grip types of grip types
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