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.Internal combustion engine is the name given to the engines that have a fuel chamber. In internal combustion engines, energy is obtained by burning the fuel in the said fuel chamber. By means of the pistons activated by this energy, the ignition process is constantly repeated and continuous movement is ensured.
What Does an Internal Combustion Engine Mean?
Engines that contain a fuel chamber in order to obtain energy by burning fossil fuels are called internal combustion engines. Invented by the German mechanical engineer Nikolaus Otto in 1854, the internal combustion engine is the result of some studies that have been developing since the 1600s and contributed by many scientists, in terms of the technologies it uses. With the invention of the internal combustion engine, steam vehicles were quickly replaced by internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines are controlled by law in many ways, as they have the potential to pollute the environment. The purpose of these inspections is to ensure that the air emitted from the engine is less polluted by using all filtration systems. Although there are practices that vary from country to country, many studies are carried out especially by the European Commission to reduce air pollution.
How Does an Internal Combustion Engine Work?
The internal combustion engine is triggered by the energy released by the gas expansion that occurs with the small-scale explosion that occurs with the ignition of the fuel through the spark plug in a closed area. The energy released is instantly converted into motion energy. The cylinders in the engine begin to repeat this process one after the other in a very short time. Four-stroke cylinders are generally used in internal combustion engines. four-stroke cylinder; It represents four different processing times: inlet, compression, combustion and exit times. At the time of entry, the pistons move up and down to work. In this way, the engine cylinder is completely filled with air and fuel. During the upward movement of the pistons, the compression time is passed. The filled air and fuel are compressed during this movement. With compression, the force of the explosion also increases. When the pistons are at their highest level, the fuel is ignited by the spark plug, causing the explosions in the cylinder to repeat regularly. When the piston reaches its lowest position, the outlet valves are opened and the cylinders are directed to the exhaust.
What are the Features of the Internal Combustion Engine?
The characteristics of internal combustion engines can be listed as follows.
It has a high compression ratio.
Its thermal efficiency is high.
Maintenance intervals are long.
It uses fossil fuel.
It has the potential to pollute the environment.
It has the capacity to provide high torque at low rpm.
It enables the use of fuel energy by converting it into mechanical energy.
What Are Internal Combustion Engine Parts?
The parts used in the internal combustion engine are divided into two according to their stability. These are fixed engine parts and moving engine parts.
What Are Fixed Engine Parts?
Fixed engine parts are stationary and stable parts that function in the engine by standing still. For this reason, cleaning, maintenance and repair of these parts can be done more easily compared to moving engine parts.
1. Engine Block (Cylinder)
The engine block is an important part that is produced from cast iron that forms the main body of the engine and that allows many parts in the engine to be held. In the engine block, which can be made of cast iron as well as aluminum, there is a cylinder in which the piston moves up and down. In addition, the crankshaft and various parts that keep the engine temperature at a balanced level are also located in this block.
2. Exhaust Manifold
The exhaust manifold is a kind of outlet pipe that allows the exhaust of the gas from the fuel burned in the cylinder. Pipes exiting from four separate cylinders converge at the exhaust manifold and proceed to the catalyst.
3. Cap Gasket
The head gasket is a part that prevents the engine block from leaking. This gasket, which is placed between the block with four cylinders and the cylinder head, is resistant to high temperatures and has a thin structure. Burning the engine gasket is usually a sign that the engine is overheating.
4. Intake Manifold
The intake manifold is the name given to the part where the intake air first passes and is distributed to the cylinders. The task of the intake manifold is to ensure that an equal amount of air is transferred to all cylinders. Therefore, any malfunction in the intake manifold will expose the cylinders to a different amount of air. This leads to unstable operation of the engine and a decrease in efficiency.
5. Cylinder Head
The cylinder head is the cover that is closed on the engine block after the cover gasket is placed on it, in a way that compresses the head gasket in between. Also on the cylinder head are the exhaust manifold, spark plug and intake manifold.
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