2022 John Deere 8R Planting Corn


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Egypt in the World and in Our Country:


Corn is one of the few plants that has been cultivated for thousands of years. Its homeland is the continent of America and it is known that it has spread all over the world from here. In the archaeological excavations carried out in the US state of New Mexico, it has been determined that the corn kernels and corncob fragments found in the shelters and caves made of rocks are about 5000 years old. On the other hand, in the archaeological excavations carried out in Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, in 1954, corn pollen, which was determined to be approximately 7000 years old, was found at a depth of 50-60 m in the soil. Since wild maize has not been found so far, no definite information about the origin and history of maize has been obtained, various theories have been produced on this subject, and all of them are still discussed today. However, the findings obtained from all archaeological excavations show that the corn plant has a history of 8,000 to 10,000 years.


In the years when the new world was discovered, corn was cultivated in many parts of the Americas. Horse tooth corn, hard corn, flour corn, sweet corn and gin corn types were also grown at that time. In particular, it was the most important plant used in the daily diet of the indigenous people living in the high regions of Mexico, Central America and South America. The Aztecs, who lived in ancient times in the region where Mexico is now, worshiped many corn gods and even offered humans as sacrifices in their rituals for greater yield. In the mythologies of the North and South American Indians, maize was seen as a gift from the gods. After the discovery of America, Spanish and English settlers who settled in that region learned how to cultivate corn and the usage areas of corn from the red-skinned local people.


When Christopher Columbus returned to Spain with the corn material he brought with him in 1493, corn was brought to Europe from its homeland in the New World for the first time. A few years after its entry into Spain, it found its place in large areas of Southeastern Europe and North Africa, especially in Portugal, France and Italy.


The Portuguese, a maritime nation, brought corn to the west coast of Africa at the beginning of the 16th century, and later to India and China. From there it spread to the whole of Asia. The corn plant has spread easily all over the world very quickly thanks to its high reproduction rate (from one to about a thousand) and its high yield potential. In many areas it has entered, it has replaced some existing plants. For example, after maize entered the African continent, it was replaced by one of the main crops, maize.


The entry of Egypt into our country was through North Africa. The fact that this plant is named corn in our country is an indication that this plant entered through Egypt and Syria.


Since maize can be grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate climate zones, maize can be grown in almost all countries of the world. Today, corn can be grown anywhere in the world, except Antarctica. It can be grown in areas between 58o north and 40o south latitudes on the world, starting from sea level up to 4000 m.


The yields obtained vary depending on the country and the cultivars grown. In addition to countries with an average grain yield of about 50-60 kg per decare, there are also countries where yields of 1 ton or more per decare can be obtained.


Yield differences between countries and between regions within the same country are due to the cultivation techniques applied during production and the varieties used in production, as well as climatic factors.


Corn is the most cultivated cereal crop in the world after wheat and paddy. Around the world, 70 million farming families, of which about 80% are in developing countries, are engaged in maize farming. According to the 2004 data of FAO, it is the most planted plant in the world after wheat and paddy with its cultivation area of ​​147,145,702 hectares. When the total production is taken into account, it ranks first, ahead of wheat and paddy, with a production of 724.515.133 tons, according to the same data. In addition, it is the plant that provides the highest yield among cereals with 492.4 kg per decare. Most corn in the world is produced in the Americas. The USA alone meets 40-45% of the world's total corn production. Figures related to world corn production are given in Table 1.


Table 1. World corn cultivation, production and yield (2004)

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